Stakeholder participation can enhance the delivery of infrastructure and associated services by supporting the identification of needs and promoting transparency. Weak participation can reduce the perceived legitimacy of infrastructure projects and major events and negatively impact trust and shared ownership of planning and delivery.
Three groups of risks are identified as relating to stakeholder participation
The number of stakeholders and the complexity of the stakeholder environment
A lack of participation can threaten public trust and engagement
A failure to meaningfully engage with vulnerable communities can result in disproportionate impacts
Key principles to address stakeholder and citizen participation risks
Detailed and ongoing mapping is required to understand the stakeholder landscape
OCOGs should undertake stakeholder mapping to identify key infrastructure delivery stakeholders and inform the development of stakeholder participation strategies. Recognising that Games infrastructure and associated services can have both positive and negative impacts on a range of groups and understanding the impacts of specific measures is key to anticipating and mitigating risks.
Ensure access for all stakeholders and citizens with an interest in Games infrastructure and associated services
The successful delivery of Games infrastructure, as well as the long-term achievement of positive economic, social and environmental outcomes, is contingent on transparent information sharing, meaningful consultation and inclusive decision-making with affected communities throughout the project life cycle
Stakeholder participation strategies should promote inclusive collaboration
Infrastructure stakeholders are diverse and require different approaches and processes to help ensure that decisions respond to the needs of the entire population in an inclusive and sustainable way. Inclusive participation can help OCOGs ensure that Games infrastructure and related development do not result in the exploitation of vulnerable communities and that sustainable development goals are met.
Stakeholder and citizen participation tools and guidelines
These tools and guidelines can help OCOGs conceptualise their approach to stakeholders, including the development of stakeholder participation plans.
OECD Guidelines for Citizen Participation Processes
Guidelines for organisations designing, planning, and implementing a citizen participation process. The guidelines walk through ten steps to design, plan, and implement a citizen participation process, and detail eight to involve citizens, illustrated with good practice examples.
Meaningful stakeholder engagement: A joint publication of the Multilateral Financial Institutions Group on Environmental and Social Standards
Based on lessons learned and evolving standards, this technical note summarizes key objectives, principles and elements of stakeholder engagement with an emphasis on integrating stakeholder engagement into project design and implementation. The note proposes ten elements that ought to be present in a systematic and meaningful stakeholder engagement process.
Stakeholder engagement: A good practice handbook for companies doing business in emerging markets
The handbook aims to provide good practice “essentials” for managing stakeholder relationships, with a dedicated focus on stakeholder groups that are external to the core operation of the business, such as affected communities, local government authorities, non-governmental and other civil society organizations, local institutions and other interested or affected parties.
Part One of the handbook contains the key concepts and principles of stakeholder engagement, the practices that are known to work, and the tools to support the delivery of effective stakeholder engagement. Part Two shows how these principles, practices and tools fit with the different phases of the project cycle, from initial concept, through construction and operations, to divestment and/or decommissioning.
OECD Good practice principles for deliberative processes for public decision making
This guide presents common principles and good practices on the establishment of deliberative processes.
Deliberative processes convene groups of people representing a wide cross-section of society to learn, deliberate, and develop collective recommendations, and can provide an innovative approach to engaging with citizens.
Inclusive infrastructure and social equity: Practical guidance for increasing the positive social outcomes of large infrastructure projects
This Reference Tool on Inclusive Infrastructure and Social Equity provides an actionable framework for an inclusive approach to infrastructure and is designed to provide guidance that is practical and based on global lessons learned. It presents the key pillars of inclusive infrastructure and their related practices in detail, as well as a number of case studies
Open Policy Making toolkit
This manual from the UK Cabinet Office includes information about using collaborative approaches and applying analytical techniques to create more open and user-led policy.
EPA Public Participation Guide
This guide from the American Environmental Protection Agency provides tools for public participation and public outreach in environmental decision-making; however, many of the tools and insights are widely applicable where public input is important to decision-making.
How to design and plan public engagement processes: a handbook
This handbook provides guidance for designing and planning effective and empowering public engagement processes. It includes a structured framework with concrete stages to map strategic considerations, identify requirements, develop a process design and elaborate a detailed plan.
Guide to Digital Participation Platforms
This guide explains how digital participation platforms can engage citizens in all types and stages of participatory processes. It also includes guidance for selecting and setting up a platform, and using it to run a participation process.